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First, contrary to the single ring per year paradigm, alternating poor and favorable conditions, such as mid-summer droughts, can result in several rings forming in a given year.In addition, particular tree species may present "missing rings", and this influences the selection of trees for study of long time spans.Adequate moisture and a long growing season result in a wide ring, while a drought year may result in a very narrow one.Direct reading of tree ring chronologies is a learned science, for several reasons.Douglass sought to better understand cycles of sunspot activity and reasoned that changes in solar activity would affect climate patterns on earth, which would subsequently be recorded by tree-ring growth patterns (i.e., sunspots → climate → tree rings).
In addition, some genera of trees are more suitable than others for this type of analysis.
If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will likely to be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar.
The rings are more visible in temperate zones, where the seasons differ more markedly.
These patterns can be compared and matched ring for ring with trees growing at the same time in the same geographical zone (and therefore under similar climatic conditions).
When these tree-ring patterns are carried back, from tree to tree in the same locale, in overlapping fashion, chronologies can be built up—both for entire geographical regions and sub-regions.